Diabetes  History Diabetes was one of the first diseases ever described by Egyptian doctors and priests. They thought of it as an excessive emptying of the urine. Doctors in India called the disease “honey urine” because urine from patients attracted ants. The word literally means “to pass through” again reflecting the symptom of frequent urination. Insulin treatment was born into the world in 1921 by two Canadians. Long acting insulin came later in the 1940s. Definition Diabetes mellitus (DM) is also called sugar diabetes. It is a group of metabolic diseases in which there are high blood sugar levels. The high sugar content of the blood causes frequent urination, increased hunger, and increased thirst. Over the long term, diabetes can also produce heart disease, stroke, kidney failure, foot ulcers, and eye damage. Diabetes is created in the body when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin or cells in the body are not able to incorporate insulin into their normal functioning. Diabetes is divided into three types. Those types are as follows: Type 1 DM: Type 1 is characterized by loss of insulin producing cells in the pancreas. It is marked by an insulin deficiency and begins in otherwise healthy people. With this type, sudden drops in blood sugar levels will occur along with sudden spikes. It is this unpredictability of glucose levels that is the cause for concern. Type 1 can be inherited and this may explain its onset in normal individuals. It is possible this type can be triggered by viral infection and diet. Type 2 DM: Type 2 begins with insulin resistance. The cells in the body cannot respond to insulin. A lack of insulin develops and its onset is often lifestyle related as excessive weight gain and lack of exercise may trigger it. Gestational diabetes: This form of diabetes occurs in pregnant women who may develop high glucose levels. It is estimated that 382 million people have diabetes worldwide. Type 2 makes up 90% of the total cases of diabetes in the world. Diabetes claimed the lives of 5.1 million people last year and it is the 8th leading cause of death in the world. Diabetes costs the world’s health systems a total of 548 billion dollars. Prevention  A healthy diet, physical exercise, and keeping the body at a normal weight will do much to prevent the onset of diabetes. Insulin therapy is the primary treatment for this disease with secondary treatments being blood pressure control and proper foot care.