Brain & Spinal Injuries Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a sudden and profound damage to the brain. It usually results from an accident involving the brain with a stationary object. A penetrating injury can also produce a TBI such as a bullet to the cranium. TBI is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. The causes for the injuries include falling, automobile accidents, and violence. Brain injury in this manner is very significant because the injury causes sudden damage to organic matter, but also involves systemic issues such as decreased blood flow to areas of the brain and increased pressure/swelling inside the cranium. This can then impact the control of others areas of the body and cause various organs to shut down or decrease productivity. TBI can cause physical, social, emotional, cognitive and behavioral effects. Psychological counseling is used to assist individuals to cope with this myriad of secondary issues stemming from the initial trauma. Other situations that may result in a traumatic brain injury include sports, being violently shaken, and profound acts of violence. Spinal Cord Injury Spinal cord injury is a damage to the spinal cord which can result in loss of mobility and/or feeling. The damage to vertebrae in the spine which are designed to protect the spine create impingements or actually destroy the various nerves extending from spine. These nerves innervate and control various organs and muscle groups within the body. So, the spinal injury can cause the loss of organ life and other systemic issues may arise. Other types of injury include diving into shallow water which can create a compression of intervertebral discs. This compression will then impede or restrict adequate nerve impulse to many parts of the body. Severing the spinal cord will result in immediate paralysis and loss of sensation below the break. It is interesting to note that the secondary damage related to traumatic brain injury or injury to the spine involves swelling, inflammation and hemorrhage. The body is constantly wanting to heal itself and restore itself to a natural and synergistic relationship with itself. Because of this, upon registering injury, it sends fluids, blood and nutrients to the traumatized area. Inflammation happens because cells containing healing chemicals move toward the trauma to reduce pain and promote healing. Diagnosis and Treatment Current medical practices for diagnosis and treatment of brain and spinal cord injury include Computed Tomography Magnetic Resonance Imaging Medications Surgical Procedure Physical Therapy Speech Therapy Recreation Therapy Occupational Therapy Vision Therapy